A Depiction of White Manhood vs. Black Manhood

  1. N.A. “Masculinity: A Depiction of White Manhood vs. Black Manhood.” University of Pittsburgh: Gender, Sexuality, and Women’s Study Program. N.p., 7 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.
  2. This author talks about how masculinity is portrayed in different races. In the white race it as seen as very violent through the media. This violence is a portrayal of a man’s strength is is exemplified in sports such as wrestling, where one can show off their manliness. The author then goes on to discuss the idea of “passing”. This idea of hiding who you truly are in order to be accepted brings up an interesting problem. Those who are black and pass as more of whites due to to the way the dress and their intellectual skills are still stuck under the stereotype of a black person due to the color of their skin, which cannot be “passed”. This means if a black man wants to be manly like a white man he may send the wrong message, therefore he must be manly in other ways due to the limitations society has put upon him.
  3. This relates to my paper in that it discusses the idea of masculinity that is essential to my argument. It also talks bout the idea of race, which was an issue seen throughout the novel as the character’s skin color determines how they were perceived.
  4. I think this piece was aimed at an African American audience, in order to incite pity. It is also aimed at an overall white audience to show how blacks cannot act manly in the same manner they do.
  5. This source isn’t going to contribute as much to my paper as I originally thought, but it can stills serve to show how manly stereotype is formed by the media such as store ads like the Abercrombie one they used as an example. The distinction between the view of masculinity in the black culture versus the white culture was not expanded on as much as I would have wished in order to talk about it in my paper.



Teddy Roosevelt: Icon of Masculinity

  1. “Roosevelt, Theodore.” American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia. Ed. Bret E. Carrol. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2003. 402-03. Print.
  2. This excerpt from American Masculinities discusses how Teddy Roosevelt was viewed as a huge promoter of the idea of masculinity. It goes into discussing his life and the various aspects that drew reasoning for him being considered an icon of masculinity. He lived on a ranch in the Dakota Territories for a long period of time where he leaned to live a rugged lifestyle. He most likely drew the most attention as a manly figure due to his role in the Spanish-American war. He assembled a group of cowboys they dubbed the “rough riders” to go defend the American boarder from the invading Mexicans. This allowed him to be renowned as a war hero, later helping him obtain presidency. He symbolized a rugged, adventure loving man taking trips to Africa to hunt big game and clinging to the idea of a western frontier.
  3.  This except relates to my paper as I can draw connections between the image of masculinity Teddy portrayed to the American people, versus the image Trujillo conveyed to the Dominican people.
  4. This was aimed at people looking to learn more about historic masculine figures in history.
  5. As I said above the biggest contribution will be the comparison between the image of masculinity Teddy portrayed to the American people, versus the image Trujillo conveyed to the Dominican people. This will allow me to see the differences of what these cultures stress as truly masculine.


Redefining Masculinity

  1. Carter, Michael. “How to Be a Man: Redefining Masculinity.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 2 June 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.
  2. Carter discusses how females are up and coming as they are slowly breaking the boundaries of the old notion of a male dominated world. He gives an example of a male student pursuing a nursing degree. This doesn’t sound right to us at first, as it would make much more sense for him to become a doctor. Carter argues that this is the problem with our society as we get too caught up in the distinctions between male and female.  He goes onto address the gay community and the distinctions made there as well. He tackles the whole notion of homosexualism and how we must work on making this seem more normal in our society due to its overwhelming presence,
  3. This relates to my issue of masculinity as it talks of the idea of how society as a whole views what males roles are.
  4. I believe the target audience here is very broad as this message is meant to be heard by many people. In specific I think it is intended to target those who are ignorant of the issues of homosexuality and gender bias in our nation.
  5. This can contribute to my paper in reference to the notion of how we view distinctions between male and female roles. This can help me to explain the problem with how masculinity is perceived in our society as a certain set of aspects and if it is outside of those we are looked down upon for not conforming.


NPR on Masculinity in the Media

  1. Mondello, Bob. “Who’s The Man? Hollywood Heroes Defined Masculinity For Millions.” NPR. NPR, 30 July 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.
  2. Mondello tackles the idea of what we learn from the media, specifically movies. He discusses how the variety of cultures that came to america “learned” about american ways through films.  He goes on to discuss the evolution of movies and how it changes over the years to shape the citizens of our nation. The notion of masculinity changed with this as people yearned for characters to look up to. This led to famous representations of what it is like to be the epitome of manliness i.e. James Bond, John Wayne, ect. Cinematographers even went above and beyond this to draw people on by making unimaginable manliness in super heroes such as super man, spider man, iron man, ect.
  3. This article addresses the issue of masculinity that I am going to be talking about. It shows it in the form of stereotypes in this case formed by the media in the form of movies in America. This stereotype of american masculinity can compare to that of the stereotype of Dominican masculinity.
  4. This is directed at a broad audience of Americans most likely males, who grew up on this notion of masculinity as defined by movies.
  5. I see this contributing to my paper as I had stated above where it will help me compare the stereotype of american masculinity can compare to that of the stereotype of Dominican masculinity. The sources where these come from will be interesting to look at as well. This discusses media in particular and I know from earlier research that Dominican masculinity is also formed by media. Comparing these types of media will be a contributing factor to my paper.

Junot Diaz’s 2012 Facing Race Conference Speech

  1. Ortiz, Maegan. “Junot Diaz and the Cult of Revolutionary Machoism.” Politic 365. N.p., 24 Nov. 2012. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.
  2. Ortiz summarizes a speech Diaz gave at  the Applied Research Center’s 2012 Facing Race Conference. Diaz was very down to earth admitting to being nervous and took questions about his recent novels from the crowd. He discussed his relation with the character of Yunior that appears in the books. He also goes deeper to talk about the issues of race and masculinity that are at the heart of his books. He calls for the men in the audience specifically to rehumanize women, especially those of color. This draws to the fact od Diaz being sympathetic toward women, especially after all he had seen growing up in the Dominican culture.
  3. This relates directly to the text as it is the author of the novel, Junot Diaz, explicitly referencing his book. He talks directly of the characters in it and the issues he tries to convey through them such as the idea of masculinity, which is essential to my argument in my paper.
  4. This piece is directed towards fans of Junot Diaz and more so those concerned about the issues involving race in our country and even our world.
  5. I see this contributing to my work as it adds great insight toward Diaz’s intention with the characters in his book. It helps to explore the idea of masculinity he sees and why it is a problem, which will help me greatly with how I explore how it also acts as a problem in society. “This means that his characters, specifically one named Yunior, wants to be el más macho and do it by chasing and hurting many women, mostly through infidelity.”


Gender Roles in the Dominican Culture

  1. Caamano, Ana Chavier. “Gender Roles in the Dominican Republic – Moon Travel Guides.” Moon Travel Guides. N.p., 03 Jan. 2010. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.
  2. Caamano discusses the idea of “Latino machoism” in this article as a form of exaggerated masculinity in this culture. This “machoism” is seen in various ways in the men of the Dominican Republic. One of the main ways is how they act as womanizers, flaunting themselves to the Dominican women. This nature has lead to the belittlement of women according to Caamano as the gap of equality has led to them struggling to obtain the privileges of a man. Caamano goes onto to discuss how this is improving over time as women are progressively working their way into the independent world of the man.
  3. This relates to my issue of masculinity in Dominican culture as Caamano goes onto to discuss it’s negative implications on the Dominican women.
  4. I believe this piece is directed toward other women, specifically other Dominican women to show how progress is being made in the issue of inequality in regard to gender. I believe this is also directed toward Dominican men to help them understand the implications of their “Latino machoism” attitude.
  5. I see this as contributing to my work as it shows another negative side of this exaggerated masculinity found in the Dominican culture. It doesn’t necessarily help in my argument in regard to Oscar, but it can show how the women in the novel are dehumanized bu these actions (a topic I am not covering, but could touch on as it relates to Dominican masculinity).


Gendered Cultural Norms in the Dominican Republic

  1. Baez, Alejandra. “Gendered Cultural Norms in the Dominican Republic.”Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. N.p., 29 Sept. 2014. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.
  2. This article discusses the idea of gender roles found in Dominican culture. Baez talks of women slowly integrating into the workforce of more “manly” jobs. She discusses the idea of men displaying characteristics of being macho and/or homophobic in this culture. Even though they are macho they are not against the expression of feminism. they agree with it, but still believe that men must always be superior as they are the protection for a women or family. Baez delves into this giving various modern day examples.
  3. This article discusses the idea of masculinity in Dominican culture that is essential to my paper. I must explain this masculinity in context with the Dominican culture the characters are apart of in the book, making her Dominican examples and first hand experience valuable.
  4. I believe this piece is directed to those who are apart or are interested in the Dominican culture and how it has progressed over the years in regard to gender roles.
  5. I think this piece could be utilized in my work to show some real world examples of masculinity, especially those directly from that of the Dominican culture. This is the most valuable aspect this work gives me, but I could also incorporate its ideas of “machoism”.


Junot Diaz Interview

  1. Jay, Paul. “Junot Diaz Redefines Macho.” In These Times. N.p., 14 Apr. 2008. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.
  2. This piece covers an interview with Junot Diaz shortly his novel The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao came out. The author gives a short cultural background on Diaz as well as what he does today. He asks why he thinks his novel got so popular as well as what he believes his writing style is. Paul then asks Diaz about his use of the idea of masculinity in the novel, especially in regard to political figures such as Trujillo and if this usage was on purpose. Diaz confirms this as he goes into how he was infatuated with the idea of masculinity both in regard to Trujillo in the Dominican republic, but also in regard to a type of new world masculinity found in the U.S. They continue on to talk about how Yunior came to understand masculinity as well as how Oscar finds intimacy at the end of the novel.  They end the interview discussing the relationship between this intimacy and masculinity.
  3. This article relates directly to my issue as it pertains to the idea of masculinity that is essential to my argument. also it directly relates to the novel itself as it is an interview with its author discussing the book.
  4. This piece is directed to those who read the book and are looking for a deeper understanding of it.
  5. I see this contributing to my work as it gives direct reasoning from the author himself on the ideas of masculinity in the book. This will help me to understand this better when I go to argue how it effects Oscar in the book. Diaz’s reasoning for using this masculinity can help my argument greatly as I can incorporate the idea that it was alluding to the idea of “new world” masculinity as Diaz describes it.


Sources of Carribbean Masculinities

  1. Bucknor, Michael A. “Dangerous Crossings: Caribbean Masculinities And The Politics Of Challenging Gendered Borderlines.” Journal Of West Indian Literature21.1/2 (2012): 1. Caribbean Search. Web. 11 Mar. 2015.
  2. In this piece Bucknor talks about sources of masculinity in Caribbean culture. He had done some research on the topic and opened it up for suggestions on what people thought the sources of this masculinity was. He concluded with a few of the major ones he saw fit. The first of these was the upbringing by fathers who try to mold their sons to be tough by physical violent disciplining. This instills in the boys from a young age to associate violence with the masculinity they perceived in their fathers. The second source Bucknor talks about is relationship with homosexuality and rape. He discusses how the rape of young Jamaican boys by other older men is not brought up by the boys for fear of looking homosexual. This fear of homosexuality in order to be masculine allows for immoral actions such as this to continue to occur. The last source of masculinity that Bucknor discusses is the media. He discusses various sources of masculinity found in the media and how they affect what people see as the “masculine” stereotype.
  3. This piece relates to my argument as I can discuss how this idea of masculinity is amplified in Dominican culture and how this comes to be. The interesting part about this piece is I can directly relate  it to Oscar as one of the main points is how the main source of masculinity for most boys in the Caribbean culture is a father figure, something Oscar lacks. This may be a reason why Oscar is not so masculine as he is not tough and looked down upon by others by not living up to this masculine stereotype.
  4. This piece is directed toward those who are specifically studying masculinity in any section of Caribbean culture as Bucknor directly opens it up to opinions from them in the beginning of this piece. I also think he is appealing to people belonging to the Caribbean culture itself as well as it may help them to understand why and how masculinity is worked up to be such a big deal in their lives.
  5. As said above I see it relating directly to Oscar and giving reason to why he acts the way he does. It shows why he may lack the masculinity that his culture holds in such a high regard.


Trujilo’s role in perceived masculinity

  1. De Moya, E. Antonio. “CHAPTER 3: Power Games And Totalitarian Masculinity In The Dominican Republic.” Interrogating Caribbean Masculinities: Theoretical & Empirical Analyses. 68-102. n.p.: University of the West Indies Press, 2004. Caribbean Search. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
  2. In this excerpt DeMoya talks about masculinity in Dominican culture. He first touches on a carnival of sorts that is a breeding ground for the overall stereotype of masculinity. This carnival singles out a single man, most likely a husband, who has had an unfaithful partner. This is a sign of poor masculinity in Dominican culture and the crowd of the carnival exerts pressure for him to exemplify his manly hood by confronting his partner as well as who she was cheating on him with. DeMoya goes on to talk about how Dominicans define masculinity as denying all femininity and he addresses this as the root of homophobic tendencies within the culture. This tendency makes them accusing of any signs of femininity in males. DeMoya also talks about the relationship between masculinity and power as she shows the need to display power in order to be regarded as masculine Dominican culture.
  3. This source relates to my topic as I intend on addressing the idea of masculinity in our culture. I want to talk specifically about how we view the norms of what it is to be a man. This source also relates directly to the book as it talks explicitly about how masculinity is perceived in Dominican culture, the same culture the majority of the character in the book are a part of. This cultural stereotype of masculinity forms how the major characters are perceived by others in the book. This article is perfect as is a scholarly source that fuses the two together.
  4. The piece is directed to those possibly in a field of anthropology that would like to study the findings of these observations made here in order to come to a better understanding of the Dominican people. It also appeals to those who have heritage in the Caribbean region as it talks directly about the cultural norms around masculinity that have developed in several areas in this region, specifically the Dominican Republic.
  5. I see this contributing to my paper as it will help me directly link how masculinity plays an essential role in the book. Comparing the stereotypes given in this piece to the actions of characters in the book will allow me to see why others view them the way they do. This piece will also allow me to see similarities in how masculinity is viewed in Dominican culture compared to American culture as it seems to be more essential to the Dominican culture after reading this. “Robert Brannon’s 1976 definition of virility, for instance, summarizes it in four main components: (1) absolute rejection of the feminine; (2) power, success, wealth and social position; (3) emotional control in crises; and (4) being daring and aggressive (see Kimmel 1997),” (De Moya).